Sunday, November 28, 2010

Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy in a PRNP codon 129 heterozygous UK patient with co-existing tau, a synuclein and AB pathology

Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy in a PRNP codon 129 heterozygous UK patient with co-existing tau, a synuclein and AB pathology

Mark W. Head • Suzanne Lowrie • Gurjit Chohan • Richard Knight • David J. Scoones • James W. Ironside

Received: 28 September 2010 / Revised: 20 October 2010 / Accepted: 21 October 2010 / Published online: 3 November 2010

Springer-Verlag 2010

Keywords Protease-sensitive prionopathy Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Prion protein PRNP codon 129 Alzheimer’s disease Lewy body disease

In 2008 a novel human prion disease, termed proteinasesensitive prionopathy (PSPr) was reported [2]. Affected patients had no known risk factors for prion exposure and no mutations in the prion protein gene (PRNP), but all were VV at codon 129 of PRNP [2]. Subsequently, we prospectively identified a similar case in the UK [3] and another was identified retrospectively from Holland [4]. The effect of PRNP codon 129 on the PSPr phenotype has been recently reported in a further series including six MV and three MM genotypes [6]. The authors identified genotypic effects on clinical, pathological and biochemical features and proposed renaming the condition ‘‘variably protease-sensitive prionopathy’’ (VPSPr) [6]. Neuropathological features in VPSPr include minimal spongiform change, minimal gliosis, microplaques in the cerebellum, and prion protein accumulation as coarse aggregates, granules and microplaques. However, the defining feature of VPSPr is the presence of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) that is less protease-resistant than in other human prion diseases, resulting in a faint ladder of low molecular weight prion protein core fragments. We describe a second VPSPr UK patient, identified prospectively, who is MV at PRNP codon 129, with some atypical pathological features. The patient developed neurological symptoms at the age of 76 and died after 12 months. Initial symptoms were forgetfulness, a tendency to drift off the subject in conversation, and visuo-spatial perceptual problems. His MMSE was recorded as 22/30 at 2 months; at 4 months, he had walking difficulties. At 6 months, he was quiet, withdrawn, could not write his name and at 8 months his MMSE was 10/30. At 9 months, he required assistance for walking, had an action tremor in his arms and urinary incontinence. By 11 months, he was bed-bound, virtually mute. Routine investigations were normal. At 10 months, an EEG was non-specifically abnormal and a CSF examination showed an elevated total protein level, but no other abnormality (14-3-3 negative; S100b normal). A cerebral MRI showed no abnormality. There was no obvious family history of prion disease; consent for full PRNP gene sequencing was not obtained.

Frozen frontal cortex was available for Western blot analysis. Prion protein (PrP) was readily detectable in the absence of proteinase K digestion, but PrPres was not detected initially, even after centrifugal enrichment [3, 4]. Further Western blot analysis showed a faint ladder-like appearance of bands similar to those seen in VPSPr, although the overall intensity was low (Fig. 1).

These biochemical characteristics are indicative of VPSPr. However, the neuropathology differs from previous cases [2–4, 6] (Fig. 2). No PrP microplaques or other prion disease pathology were evident in the cerebellum using anti-PrP antibodies 3F4, 12F10 and KG9 with and without protease digestion. However, microplaques, synaptic and granular PrP deposits were present in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. There was diffuse Lewy body pathology (neocortical, moderate severity) [5], with Ab plaques (corresponding to CERAD NP probable) and a widespread amyloid angiopathy. Tau pathology was transentorhinal, corresponding to Braak stage 2, with no subcortical or glial tau pathology [1]. No colocalisation of either Ab or tau with the PrP microplaques was observed. The significance of this co-existing neuropathology on the clinicopathological phenotype is uncertain; Lewy body, tau and Ab pathology has been identified in other forms of human prion diseases, but only Ab has so far been reported in VPSPr [6].

Our case does not exhibit pathology typical of VPSPr PRNP codon 129 MV cases hitherto reported [6]: the relative sparing of the cerebellum is particularly striking, along with the other features of neurodegeneration involving tau, Ab and a synuclein. Nevertheless, the biochemistry and cerebral pathology of this case strongly suggest that this is the first identified case of VPSPr in a PRNP codon 129 heterozygote in the UK. Continuing surveillance is essential for the identification of future cases of VPSPr and the investigation of their relationship to other human prion diseases and other neurodegenerative disorders.

Acknowledgments We are grateful to the patient’s relatives for giving consent for publication of this report. This is an independent report commissioned and funded by the Policy Research Programme in the Department of Health, UK. The views expressed in the publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Health.

References

snip...see full text ;

http://www.springerlink.com/content/lh16741510468466/fulltext.pdf


* There was no obvious family history of prion disease, ??? ...end...TSS


Thursday, November 19, 2009 Inherited Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in a Dutch patient with a novel five octapeptide repeat insertion and unusual cerebellar morphology J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009;80:1386-1389 doi:10.1136/jnnp.2008.169359

Short report

Inherited Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in a Dutch patient with a novel five octapeptide repeat insertion and unusual cerebellar morphology

C Jansen1, J C van Swieten2, S Capellari3, R Strammiello3, P Parchi3, A J M Rozemuller1 + Author Affiliations

1Dutch Surveillance Centre for Prion Diseases, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands 2Department of Neurology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 3Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy Correspondence to Dr C Jansen, Dutch Surveillance Centre for Prion Diseases, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands; c.jansen@umcutrecht.nl Received 2 December 2008 Revised 22 February 2009 Accepted 5 March 2009

Abstract

An atypical case of inherited Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is described in a 35-year-old Dutch woman, homozygous for methionine at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP). The clinical phenotype was characterised by slowly progressive cognitive decline and parkinsonism. Neuropathological findings consisted of scanty spongiosis and only faint to absent immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein, PrPSc, with patchy deposits in the cerebellar cortex. Purkinje cells were abnormally located in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. Western blot analysis showed the co-occurrence of PrPSc types 1 and 2 with an unusual distribution. Sequence analysis disclosed a novel 120 bp insertion in the octapeptide repeat region of the PRNP, encoding five additional R2 octapeptide repeats. These features define an unusual neuropathological phenotype and novel genotype, further expanding the spectrum of genotype–phenotype correlations in inherited prion diseases and emphasising the need to carry out pre-mortem PRNP sequencing in all young patients with atypical dementias....

http://sporadicffi.blogspot.com/2009/11/inherited-creutzfeldtjakob-disease-in.html


The 5-OPRI mutation in this patient was probably inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern but a positive family history in patients with inherited prion disease is not obligate....???...TSS


GEN-07

SPORADIC FATAL INSOMNIA IN A FATAL FAMILIAL INSOMNIA PEDIGREE

S. Capellari1a, P. Cortelli1, P. Avoni1, G.P. Casadei2, A. Baruzzi1, E. Lugaresi1, M. Pocchiari3, P. Gambetti4, P. Montagna1, P. Parchi1. 1Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 2Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, ISS, Roma, Italy; 3Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale Maggiore, Bologna, Italy, 4Division of Neuropathology, CWRU, Cleveland, OH, USA. a mhtml:%7B33B38F65-8D2E-434D-8F9B-8BDCD77D3066%7Dmid://00000208/!x-usc:mailto:capellari@neuro.unibo.it

We describe a case of sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI) occurring in a family in which several members carried the D178N mutation in the PRNP gene and died of fatal familial insomnia (FFI). A 43-year-old woman presented with an 11-month history of diplopia, withdrawal, confusion, memory loss, unsteady gait and inability to sleep with episodes of agitation and dream enactment. After a progressive course characterized by cognitive impairment, marked gait ataxia, signs of autonomic hyperactivity, and myoclonus the patient died 24 months after the onset of symptoms. The patient did not have any personal contact with FFI affected relatives and her closest one was a paternal uncle, the son of her grand-grand mother. Analyses of DNA from various tissues of endo- ecto- and meso-dermal origin, including 5 different regions of the CNS revealed no pathogenic mutations and methionine homozygosity at codon 129 of PRNP. Brain histopathology and PrPSc typing showed typical features of FI such as thalamic and olivary atrophy, focal spongiform degeneration limited to the cerebral cortex, relative sparing of basal ganglia and cerebellum, and relatively low amount of PrPSc type 2A accumulation. sFI represents the rarest among the sporadic human TSE subtypes described to date with less than twenty cases described worldwide and only three cases diagnosed in Italy since the establishment of TSE surveillance. Similarly, only six unrelated FFI families have been observed in Italy to date, making the probability of a chance association between sFI and FFI in the same family extremely low. Thus, we believe that our observation emphasizes the importance of undiscovered factors modulating the susceptibility to human prion diseases.

Supported by the EU Network of Excellence “NeuroPrion” (FOOD-CT-2004-506579).

http://www.neuroprion.com/pdf_docs/conferences/prion2006/abstract_book.pdf


O.10.5

A novel human prion disease affecting subjects with the three prion protein codon 129 genotypes: could it be the sporadic form of Gerstmann-Straussler?

Pierluigi Gambetti Case Western Reserve University, USA

Background: We recently described a novel prion disease, named protease-sensitive prionopathy or PSPr, characterized by the presence of an abnormal prion protein (PrP) that was 60 fold less protease resistant than that of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) and on immunoblot generated a distinct ladder-like profile. All affected subjects where homozygous for valine at codon 129 (VV) and had no mutation in the PrP gene.

Methods: We have characterized several new cases in our surveillance and received from Europe.

Results: 1) A disease overall similar to that reported in the 129VV subjects also affects subjects that are methionine/valine heterozygous (MV) and methionine homozygous (MM) at codon 129 and have no PrP gene mutation; 2) The clinical and histopathological features of the new MV and MM PSPr cases are similar but distinguishable from those of the original VV cases; 3) The electrophoretic profiles generated by the abnormal PrP isoforms associated with the MV and MM cases are similar to VV cases but show increasing levels of proteaseresistance; 3) abnormal tau is present in all three genotypic forms of PSPr with features apparently similar to those of primary tauopathies placing PSPr at the intersection of tauopathies and prion diseases.

Discussion: Will focus on: 1) the features of the abnormal PrP in the newly discovered 129MV and 129MM PSPr; 2) the effect of the 129 polymorphism on PSPr compared to that on sCJD; 3) the relationship of PSPr with tauopathies; 4) whether PSPr now with the three 129 genotypic forms is the long sought sporadic form of GSS. (Supported by NIH AG-14359, NS052319, CDC UR8/CCU515004).

http://www.neuroprion.org/resources/pdf_docs/conferences/prion2009/prion2009_bookofabstracts.pdf


A case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with a Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker phenotype but no alterations in the PRNP gene

P. P. Liberski · M. Barcikowska · L. Cervenakova · J. Bratosiewicz · M. Marczewska · P. Brown · D. C. Gajdusek

Acta Neuropathol (1998) 96 : 425–430 © Springer-Verlag 1998 Received: 15 July 1997 / Revised, accepted: 24 March 1998

Key words Prions · Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease · Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease

Abstract

We report here an unusual sporadic case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) characterized by an abundance of prion protein (PrP)-immunopositive kuru and multicentric but not florid plaques. Molecular genetic analysis of the PRNP open reading frame region spanning codons 8–221 was performed. Neither deletion nor insertion mutations were detected in the repeat area of the PRNP. No pathogenic mutation was found in the sequenced region between codon 108–221. Restriction analysis of the amplified fragment using restriction endonucleases DdeI, PvuII and AluI did not show any of the previously described pathogenic mutations at codon 102, 105, and 117 associated with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS). The patient was heterozygous for the methionine/ valine coding triplet at polymorphic codon 129 of the PRNP gene by sequence, restriction endonuclease analysis and hybridization with allele-specific nucleotides. Furthermore, hybridization with 32P-labeled allele-specific oligonucleotides confirmed the absence of pathogenic mutations at codons 102, 200 and 178. Such a case may present a missing “link” between sporadic CJD and familial GSS.

http://www.springerlink.com/content/wf78le2x9khv6krb/


FC5.1.1

Transmission Results in Squirrel Monkeys Inoculated with Human sCJD, vCJD, and GSS Blood Specimens: the Baxter Study

Brown, P1; Gibson, S2; Williams, L3; Ironside, J4; Will, R4; Kreil, T5; Abee, C3 1Fondation Alliance BioSecure, France; 2University of South Alabama, USA; 3University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA; 4Western General Hospital, UK; 5Baxter BioSience, Austria

Background: Rodent and sheep models of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) have documented blood infectivity in both the pre-clinical and clinical phases of disease. Results in a (presumably more appropriate) non-human primate model have not been reported.

Objective: To determine if blood components (red cells, white cells, platelets, and plasma) from various forms of human TSE are infectious. Methods: Blood components were inoculated intra-cerebrally (0.1 ml) and intravenously (0.5 ml) into squirrel monkeys from 2 patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease (sCJD) and 3 patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Additional monkeys were inoculated with buffy coat or plasma samples from chimpanzees infected with either sCJD or Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS). Animals were monitored for a period of 5 years, and all dying or sacrificed animals had post-mortem neuropathological examinations and Western blots to determine the presence or absence of the misfolded 'prion' protein (PrPTSE).

Results: No transmissions occurred in any of the animals inoculated with blood components from patients with sporadic or variant CJD. All donor chimpanzees (sCJD and GSS) became symptomatic within 6 weeks of their pre-clinical phase plasmapheresis, several months earlier than the expected onset of illness.

One monkey inoculated with purified leukocytes from a pre-clinical GSS chimpanzee developed disease after 36 months.

Conclusion: No infectivity was found in small volumes of blood components from 4 patients with sporadic CJD and 3 patients with variant CJD.

However, a single transmission from a chimpanzee-passaged strain of GSS shows that infectivity may be present in leukocytes, and the 'shock' of general anaesthesia and plasmspheresis appears to have triggered the onset of illness in pre-clinical donor chimpanzees.

http://www.neuroprion.org/resources/pdf_docs/conferences/prion2007/abstract_book.pdf


Ann Neurol. 2010 Aug;68(2):162-72.

Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy: a new sporadic disease of the prion protein.

Zou WQ, Puoti G, Xiao X, Yuan J, Qing L, Cali I, Shimoji M, Langeveld JP, Castellani R, Notari S, Crain B, Schmidt RE, Geschwind M, Dearmond SJ, Cairns NJ, Dickson D, Honig L, Torres JM, Mastrianni J, Capellari S, Giaccone G, Belay ED, Schonberger LB, Cohen M, Perry G, Kong Q, Parchi P, Tagliavini F, Gambetti P.

Department of Pathology, National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. wenquan.zou@case.edu

Abstract OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to report 2 new genotypic forms of protease-sensitive prionopathy (PSPr), a novel prion disease described in 2008, in 11 subjects all homozygous for valine at codon 129 of the prion protein (PrP) gene (129VV). The 2 new PSPr forms affect individuals who are either homozygous for methionine (129MM) or heterozygous for methionine/valine (129MV).

METHODS: Fifteen affected subjects with 129MM, 129MV, and 129VV underwent comparative evaluation at the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center for clinical, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, genotypical, and PrP characteristics.

RESULTS: Disease duration (between 22 and 45 months) was significantly different in the 129VV and 129MV subjects. Most other phenotypic features along with the PrP electrophoretic profile were similar but distinguishable in the 3 129 genotypes. A major difference laid in the sensitivity to protease digestion of the disease-associated PrP, which was high in 129VV but much lower, or altogether lacking, in 129MV and 129MM. This difference prompted the substitution of the original designation with "variably protease-sensitive prionopathy" (VPSPr). None of the subjects had mutations in the PrP gene coding region.

INTERPRETATION: Because all 3 129 genotypes are involved, and are associated with distinguishable phenotypes, VPSPr becomes the second sporadic prion protein disease with this feature after Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, originally reported in 1920. However, the characteristics of the abnormal prion protein suggest that VPSPr is different from typical prion diseases, and perhaps more akin to subtypes of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.

PMID: 20695009 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20695009


None of the subjects had mutations in the PrP gene coding region....???...TSS


Sunday, August 24, 2008

Sporadic Fatal Insomnia with Unusual Biochemical and Neuropathological Findings


P03.121

Sporadic Fatal Insomnia with Unusual Biochemical and Neuropathological Findings

Giaccone, G1; Mangieri, M1; Priano, L2; Limido, L1; Brioschi, A2; Albani, G2; Pradotto, L2; Fociani, P3; Orsi, L4; Mortara, P4; Tagliavini, F1; Mauro, A2 1Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Italy; 2IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Italy; 3Università di Milano, Ospedale Luigi Sacco, Italy; 4Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Italy

Sporadic fatal insomnia (SFI) is a rare subtype of human prion disease, whose clinical and neuropathological phenotype is very similar to familial fatal insomnia (FFI). SFI patients reported until now were all homozygous for methionine at codon 129 of PRNP with deposition of type 2 PrPres (Parchi classification) in the brain. Here we describe a 56-year-old woman who died after a 10-month illness characterized by progressive drowsiness, cognitive deterioration, autonomic impairment and myoclonus. Polysomnography demonstrated a pattern similar to that described in FFI cases with loss of circadian pattern of sleep-wake cycle. A remarkable finding was that 20 years before the onset of symptoms, the patient had undergone surgery for a colloid cyst of the third ventricle, and two ventricular shunts were placed, one correctly in the left ventricle, while the second ended in the right thalamus. The PRNP gene showed no mutation and methionine homozygosity at codon 129. The neuropathologic examination revealed neuronal loss, gliosis, and spongiosis that were mild in the cerebral cortex, while relevant in the caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, hypothalamus and inferior olives. In the thalamus, the mediodorsal nuclei were more severely affected than the ventral ones. PrPres immunoreactivity was consistent in the striatum, thalamus and hypothalamus, patchy and of low intensity in the cerebral cortex and absent in the cerebellum. Western blot analysis confirmed this topographic distribution of PrPres. The bands corresponding to di- glycosylated, monoglycosylated and non-glycosylated PrPres were equally represented. The nonglycosylated PrPres band had an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of type 1 by Parchi classification, in the multiple cortical and subcortical regions examined. These findings demonstrate the existence of further rare molecular subtypes of human prion diseases, whose characterization may provide clues for the elucidation of the relation between biochemical characteristics of PrPres and clinico-pathological features of these disorders.

http://www.neuroprion.com/pdf_docs/conferences/prion2007/abstract_book.pdf


Greetings,

IT could also be that this sFFI is just another case of iCJD (via friendly fire from the surgery for a colloid cyst of the third ventricle, and two ventricular shunts were placed, one correctly in the left ventricle, while the second ended in the right thalamus), some 20 years before the onset of symptoms of this so called sFFI case, from some sub-type of sporadic CJD, now called sporadic FFI ???

I believe it was Gambetti et al that coined this term sporadic FFI, from some conspicuous sub-type of sporadic CJD possibly? seems they could not tie it to a true FFI by diagnostic standards to date, so it was then termed a sFFI, confusing matters even worse ;


A subtype of sporadic prion disease mimicking fatal familial insomnia


http://www.neurology.org/cgi/content/abstract/52/9/1757?ck=nck


THIS seems to raise more questions than answers, confusing the TSEs even worse.


WHAT is sporadic CJD, and how many sub-types and atypical strains, phenotypes etc. will there be, arising from nothing. a spontaneous happening of sorts??? i think not. ...tss


http://sporadicffi.blogspot.com/


Wednesday, October 27, 2010

A novel variant of human disease with a protease-sensitive prion protein and heterozygosity methionine/valine at codon 129: Case report

snip...

Genetic findings

No mutations were found in the open reading frame after sequencing the prion protein gene (PRNP). A heterozygosis methionine valine (MV) was observed in codon 129.

snip...

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2010/10/novel-variant-of-human-disease-with.html


Tuesday, August 03, 2010

Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy: A new sporadic disease of the prion protein

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2010/08/variably-protease-sensitive-prionopathy.html


Monday, August 9, 2010

Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy: A new sporadic disease of the prion protein or just more PRIONBALONEY ?

http://prionunitusaupdate2008.blogspot.com/2010/08/variably-protease-sensitive-prionopathy.html


Thursday, July 10, 2008

A New Prionopathy update July 10, 2008

http://cjdmadcowbaseoct2007.blogspot.com/2008/07/new-prionopathy-update-july-10-2008.html



***+++***


Thursday, July 10, 2008

A Novel Human Disease with Abnormal Prion Protein Sensitive to Protease update July 10, 2008 Friday, June 20, 2008


http://cjdmadcowbaseoct2007.blogspot.com/2008/07/novel-human-disease-with-abnormal-prion.html



let's take a closer look at this new prionpathy or prionopathy, and then let's look at the g-h-BSEalabama mad cow.


This new prionopathy in humans? the genetic makeup is IDENTICAL to the g-h-BSEalabama mad cow, the only _documented_ mad cow in the world to date like this, ......wait, it get's better. this new prionpathy is killing young and old humans, with LONG DURATION from onset of symptoms to death, and the symptoms are very similar to nvCJD victims, OH, and the plaques are very similar in some cases too, bbbut, it's not related to the g-h-BSEalabama cow, WAIT NOW, it gets even better, the new human prionpathy that they claim is a genetic TSE, has no relation to any gene mutation in that family. daaa, ya think it could be related to that mad cow with the same genetic make-up ??? there were literally tons and tons of banned mad cow protein in Alabama in commerce, and none of it transmitted to cows, and the cows to humans there from ??? r i g h t $$$

ALABAMA MAD COW g-h-BSEalabama

In this study, we identified a novel mutation in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp), called E211K, of a confirmed BSE positive cow from Alabama, United States of America. This mutation is identical to the E200K pathogenic mutation found in humans with a genetic form of CJD. This finding represents the first report of a confirmed case of BSE with a potential pathogenic mutation within the bovine Prnp gene. We hypothesize that the bovine Prnp E211K mutation most likely has caused BSE in "the approximately 10-year-old cow" carrying the E221K mutation.

http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1000156


http://www.plospathogens.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1000156&representation=PDF


Saturday, August 14, 2010

BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY

(see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)

http://prionpathy.blogspot.com/2010/08/bse-case-associated-with-prion-protein.html


P.9.21

Molecular characterization of BSE in Canada

Jianmin Yang1, Sandor Dudas2, Catherine Graham2, Markus Czub3, Tim McAllister1, Stefanie Czub1 1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Canada; 2National and OIE BSE Reference Laboratory, Canada; 3University of Calgary, Canada

Background: Three BSE types (classical and two atypical) have been identified on the basis of molecular characteristics of the misfolded protein associated with the disease. To date, each of these three types have been detected in Canadian cattle.

Objectives: This study was conducted to further characterize the 16 Canadian BSE cases based on the biochemical properties of there associated PrPres. Methods: Immuno-reactivity, molecular weight, glycoform profiles and relative proteinase K sensitivity of the PrPres from each of the 16 confirmed Canadian BSE cases was determined using modified Western blot analysis.

Results: Fourteen of the 16 Canadian BSE cases were C type, 1 was H type and 1 was L type. The Canadian H and L-type BSE cases exhibited size shifts and changes in glycosylation similar to other atypical BSE cases. PK digestion under mild and stringent conditions revealed a reduced protease resistance of the atypical cases compared to the C-type cases. N terminal- specific antibodies bound to PrPres from H type but not from C or L type. The C-terminal-specific antibodies resulted in a shift in the glycoform profile and detected a fourth band in the Canadian H-type BSE.

Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan. This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada. *It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries.

http://www.prion2009.com/sites/default/files/Prion2009_Book_of_Abstracts.pdf


2009 UPDATE ON ALABAMA AND TEXAS MAD COWS 2005 and 2006

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2006/08/bse-atypical-texas-and-alabama-update.html


Tuesday, November 02, 2010

BSE - ATYPICAL LESION DISTRIBUTION (RBSE 92-21367) statutory (obex only) diagnostic criteria CVL 1992

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/11/bse-atypical-lesion-distribution-rbse.html



In Confidence - Perceptions of unconventional slow virus diseases of animals in the USA - APRIL-MAY 1989 - G A H Wells


3. Prof. A Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach was to accord it a very low profile indeed. Dr. A Thiermann showed the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and thought this was a fanatical incident to be avoided in the US at all costs. BSE was not reported in the USA.




http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080102193705/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf


PLEASE NOTE *

Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.

snip...


The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...



http://web.archive.org/web/20030516051623/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m09/tab05.pdf


CJD TEXAS 38 YEAR OLD FEMALE WORKED SLAUGHTERING CATTLE EXPOSED TO BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD MATTER

"Up until about 6 years ago, the pt worked at Tyson foods where she worked on the assembly line, slaughtering cattle and preparing them for packaging. She was exposed to brain and spinal cord matter when she would euthanize the cattle."

Irma Linda Andablo CJD Victim, she died at 38 years old on February 6, 2010 in Mesquite Texas

Irma Linda Andablo CJD Victim, she died at 38 years old on February 6, 2010 in Mesquite Texas.She left 6 Kids and a Husband.The Purpose of this web is to give information in Spanish to the Hispanic community, and to all the community who want's information about this terrible disease.-

Physician Discharge Summary, Parkland Hospital, Dallas Texas

Admit Date: 12/29/2009 Discharge Date: 1/20/2010 Attending Provider: Greenberg, Benjamin Morris; General Neurology Team: General Neurology Team

Linda was a Hispanic female with no past medical history presents with 14 months of incresing/progressive altered mental status, generalized weakness, inability to walk, loss of appetite, inability to speak, tremor and bowel/blader incontinence.She was, in her usual state of health up until February, 2009, when her husbans notes that she began forgetting things like names and short term memories. He also noticed mild/vague personality changes such as increased aggression. In March, she was involved in a hit and run MVA,although she was not injured. The police tracked her down and ticketed her. At that time, her son deployed to Iraq with the Army and her husband assumed her mentation changes were due to stress over these two events. Also in March, she began to have weakness in her legs, making it difficult to walk. Over the next few months, her mentation and personality changes worsened, getting to a point where she could no longer recognized her children. She was eating less and less. She was losing more weight. In the last 2-3 months, she reached the point where she could not walk without an assist, then 1 month ago, she stopped talking, only making grunting/aggressive sounds when anyone came near her. She also became both bowel and bladder incontinent, having to wear diapers. Her '"tremor'" and body jerks worsened and her hands assumed a sort of permanent grip position, leading her family to put tennis balls in her hands to protect her fingers.

The husband says that they have lived in Nebraska for the past 21 years. They had seen a doctor there during the summer time who prescribed her Seroquel and Lexapro, Thinking these were sx of a mood disorder. However, the medications did not help and she continued to deteriorate clinically. Up until about 6 years ago, the pt worked at Tyson foods where she worked on the assembly line, slaughtering cattle and preparing them for packaging. She was exposed to brain and spinal cord matter when she would euthanize the cattle. The husband says that he does not know any fellow workers with a similar illness. He also says that she did not have any preceeding illness or travel.

http://www.recordandoalinda.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=19:cjd-english-info&catid=9:cjd-ingles&Itemid=8


Terry S. Singeltary Sr. has added the following comment:

"According to the World Health Organisation, the future public health threat of vCJD in the UK and Europe and potentially the rest of the world is of concern and currently unquantifiable. However, the possibility of a significant and geographically diverse vCJD epidemic occurring over the next few decades cannot be dismissed.

http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241545887.pdf


The key word here is diverse. What does diverse mean?

If USA scrapie transmitted to USA bovine does not produce pathology as the UK c-BSE, then why would CJD from there look like UK vCJD?"

SEE FULL TEXT ;

http://www.promedmail.org/pls/apex/f?p=2400:1001:568933508083034::NO::F2400_P1001_BACK_PAGE,F2400_P1001_PUB_MAIL_ID:1000,82101



.57 The experiment which might have determined whether BSE and scrapie were caused by the same agent (ie, the feeding of natural scrapie to cattle) was never undertaken in the UK. It was, however, performed in the USA in 1979, when it was shown that cattle inoculated with the scrapie agent endemic in the flock of Suffolk sheep at the United States Department of Agriculture in Mission, Texas, developed a TSE quite unlike BSE. 32 The findings of the initial transmission, though not of the clinical or neurohistological examination, were communicated in October 1988 to Dr Watson, Director of the CVL, following a visit by Dr Wrathall, one of the project leaders in the Pathology Department of the CVL, to the United States Department of Agriculture. 33 The results were not published at this point, since the attempted transmission to mice from the experimental cow brain had been inconclusive. The results of the clinical and histological differences between scrapie-affected sheep and cattle were published in 1995. Similar studies in which cattle were inoculated intracerebrally with scrapie inocula derived from a number of scrapie-affected sheep of different breeds and from different States, were carried out at the US National Animal Disease Centre. 34 The results, published in 1994, showed that this source of scrapie agent, though pathogenic for cattle, did not produce the same clinical signs of brain lesions characteristic of BSE.

32 Clark, W., Hourrigan, J. and Hadlow, W. (1995) Encephalopathy in Cattle Experimentally Infected with the Scrapie Agent, American Journal of Veterinary Research, 56, 606-12

33 YB88/10.00/1.1


http://web.archive.org/web/20040823105233/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1988/10/00001001.pdf


Thursday, November 18, 2010

Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep


http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/11/increased-susceptibility-of-human-prp.html


Monday, August 9, 2010

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined (July 31, 2010)

(please watch and listen to the video and the scientist speaking about atypical BSE and sporadic CJD and listen to Professor Aguzzi)

http://prionunitusaupdate2008.blogspot.com/2010/08/national-prion-disease-pathology.html


Monday, May 19, 2008

SPORADIC CJD IN FARMERS, FARMERS WIVES, FROM FARMS WITH BSE HERD AND ABATTOIRS

http://bseinquiry.blogspot.com/2008/05/sporadic-cjd-in-farmers-farmers-wives.html


2010

First threat

The TSE road map defining the evolution of European policy for protection against prion diseases is based on a certain numbers of hypotheses some of which may turn out to be erroneous. In particular, a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed. Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.

http://www.neuroprion.org/en/np-neuroprion.html


Monday, November 22, 2010

Atypical transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in ruminants: a challenge for disease surveillance and control

REVIEW ARTICLES

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2010/11/atypical-transmissible-spongiform.html


Tuesday, September 14, 2010

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting October 28 and 29, 2010 (COMMENT SUBMISSION)

http://tseac.blogspot.com/2010/09/transmissible-spongiform_14.html


Wednesday, September 08, 2010

Emerging Infectious Diseases: CJD, BSE, SCRAPIE, CWD, PRION, TSE Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation September 2010

http://vcjdtransfusion.blogspot.com/2010/09/emerging-infectious-diseases-cjd-bse.html


Tuesday, June 1, 2010

USA cases of dpCJD rising with 24 cases so far in 2010

http://cjdtexas.blogspot.com/2010/06/usa-cases-of-dpcjd-rising-with-24-cases.html


Sunday, July 11, 2010

CJD or prion disease 2 CASES McLennan County Texas population 230,213 both cases in their 40s

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2010/07/cjd-2-cases-mclennan-county-texas.html


Friday, February 05, 2010

New Variant Creutzfelt Jakob Disease case reports United States 2010 A Review

http://vcjd.blogspot.com/2010/02/new-variant-creutzfelt-jakob-disease.html


Manuscript Draft Manuscript Number: Title: HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory Article Type: Personal View Corresponding Author: Mr. Terry S. Singeltary, Corresponding Author's Institution: na First Author: Terry S Singeltary, none Order of Authors: Terry S Singeltary, none; Terry S. Singeltary

Abstract: TSEs have been rampant in the USA for decades in many species, and they all have been rendered and fed back to animals for human/animal consumption. I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2007.

http://www.regulations.gov/fdmspublic/ContentViewer?objectId=090000648027c28e&disposition=attachment&contentType=pdf


Saturday, June 13, 2009

Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States 2003 revisited 2009

http://cjdusa.blogspot.com/2009/06/monitoring-occurrence-of-emerging-forms.html


Saturday, January 2, 2010

Human Prion Diseases in the United States January 1, 2010 ***FINAL***

http://prionunitusaupdate2008.blogspot.com/2010/01/human-prion-diseases-in-united-states.html


my comments to PLosone here ;


http://www.plosone.org/annotation/listThread.action?inReplyTo=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fannotation%2F04ce2b24-613d-46e6-9802-4131e2bfa6fd&root=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fannotation%2F04ce2b24-613d-46e6-9802-4131e2bfa6fd


HOW many of you recieved a written CJD Questionnaire asking real questions pertaining to route and source (and there are many here in North America) ?

IS every case getting a cjd questionnaire asking real questions ???

Friday, November 30, 2007

CJD QUESTIONNAIRE USA CWRU AND CJD FOUNDATION USA PRION UNIT

http://cjdquestionnaire.blogspot.com/2007/11/cjd-questionnaire.html


Friday, October 22, 2010

Peripherally Applied Aß-Containing Inoculates Induce Cerebral ß-Amyloidosis

http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/2010/10/peripherally-applied-containing.html


Friday, September 3, 2010

Alzheimer's, Autism, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson's, Prionoids, Prionpathy, Prionopathy, TSE

http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/2010/09/alzheimers-autism-amyotrophic-lateral.html


http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/


layperson

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 flounder9@verizon.net

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